Speakers of the Senate. Between 1834 and 1923
- Francisco Javier CASTAÑOS Y ARAGORRI. Duque de Bailén (Madrid, 1758 – Madrid, 1852).
Eminent soldier. He defeated the French in Bailén (1808), a victory that earned him his title. An Absolutist, he stayed away from politics during liberal periods. In 1832, he was the speaker of the Council of State and in 1833 speaker of Las Cortes during the illness of Ferdinand VII who, in his will, named him speaker of the Regency Council and guardian to Isabella, the Princess of Asturias, and her sister, Maria Fernanda.
Speaker of the upper house, or Estamento de Próceres, during the 1834-1835 Legislature.
- Pedro Agustín GIRÓN Y DE LAS CASAS. Marqués de las Amarillas y Duque de Ahumada (San Sebastián, 1778 – Madrid, 1842).
Soldier. Minister of War in 1820. A moderate constitutionalist liberal, he was persecuted by Ferdinand VII and reappeared in 1833 as a member of the Regency Council when Isabella II was still a minor. He was once again appointed minister of War in 1835.
Speaker of the Estamento de Próceres upper house during the 1834-1835 Legislature from September of 1834, following the resignation of the Duke of Bailén
- Pedro GONZÁLEZ VALLEJO (Soto de Cameros, Logroño, 1770 – Madrid, 1842).
Clergyman. Liberal, following the uprising in Riego, he signed the Constitution. Bishop of Mallorca in 1820, branded an intruder by reactionaries. Member and speaker of the Parliament in 1811 and of the extraordinary parliament of 1821. Upon the return of absolutism, he emigrated to France, returning after the amnesty of 1832. Member of the upper house between 1834 and 1836. Senator from 1837, supporting the Regency of Espartero.
Speaker of the Estamento de Próceres upper house during the 1835-1836 and 1836 Legislatures.
- José María MOSCOSO DE ALTAMIRA. Conde de Fontao (Mondoñedo, Lugo, 1788 – Madrid, 1854).
Soldier. He fought against the French and had to flee until the end of occupation. Liberal member of parliament in 1820 and deputy speaker and speaker of this Parliament. Minister of the Interior in 1822 and State councillor in 1823. Exiled upon the return of absolutism. Following the amnesty, he once again became the minister of the Interior in 1834-1835, always under Martínez de la Rosa.
Speaker of the Senate during the Legislatures of 1837-1838, 1838-1839, 1839-1840 and 1844-1845
- Ildefonso DÍEZ DE RIVERA Y MURO. Conde de Almodóvar (Granada, 1777 – Valencia, 1846).
Soldier. He made a name for himself during the war against Napoleon. Liberal, he was imprisoned by the Inquisition. Appointed a member of the General Staff between 1810 and 1812. Imprisoned in 1817 until the Liberal Triennium. In 1823, upon the return of absolutism, he was exiled to France, returning after the amnesty. Speaker of the Estamento de Procuradores lower house in 1834-1835. Minister of War in 1835 and 1836. Interim President of the Government and State minister in 1843 under Espartero. A member of the Progressive Party.
Speaker of the Senate during the Legislatures of 1841, and 1841-1842
- Álvaro GÓMEZ BECERRA (Cáceres, 1771 – Madrid, 1855).
Lawyer and member of the Progressive Party. Political leader of Extremadura, resigning in 1814 upon the return of Ferdinand VII. Speaker of the Cadiz Parliament in 1822, he was exiled until the death of Ferdinand VII. Minister of Justice in 1835, and in 1836 he became speaker of the Estamento de Procuradores lower house. Speaker of the Council of Ministers and minister of Justice under Espartero, he was replaced by Narváez in 1845.
Speaker of the Senate during the Legislatures of 1842, 1843 [1st] and 1843 [2nd]
- Mauricio Carlos de ONÍS MERKLEIN (Dresde, Alemania, 1790 – Madrid, 1861).
Diplomat. Member of the lower house during the three legislatures from 1834 to 1836 and, in the third session, secretary of the Bureau. Member of the Progressive Party. Minister of State in 1840, senator from 1839, he was the 4th Secretary of the Senate in 1841, 2nd in 1841-1842 and 1st in 1842-1843.
Speaker of the Senate during the 1843 Legislature (3rd)
- Manuel de PANDO FERNÁNDEZ DE PINEDO. Marqués de Miraflores (Madrid, 1792 – Madrid, 1872).
Publicist, historian and diplomat. Member of the Moderate Party, he then joined the Liberal Union and, at the end of his life, the Conservative Party. Ambassador in London and Paris. In 1846, for a few days he was president of the Council of Ministers, replacing Narváez. Minister of State in 1851. Ambassador in Rome in 1861, and in 1863, president of the Council of Ministers, replacing O'Donnell. Appointed speaker of the Senate in 1836, he was not sworn in owing to the events of La Granja.
Speaker of the Senate during the Legislatures of 1845-1846, 1847-1848, 1848, 1849-1850, 1850-1851, 1852, 1866-1867 and 1867-1868
- Manuel de la PEZUELA Y CEVALLOS. Marqués de Viluma (A Coruña, 1797 – Madrid, 1872).
Soldier. Outstanding Liberal during the Triennium, in 1834 he was a member of the Moderate Party, together with his brother, the Count of Cheste. Governor of Santander and member of parliament. Minister of State under Narváez. Opposed to revolution, in 1868 he set up the Association of Catholics.
Speaker of the Senate during the Legislatures of 1846-1847, 1851-1852, 1853 [2nd], 1857 and 1858
- Joaquín de EZPELETA ENRILE (La Habana, Cuba, 1788 – Madrid, 1863).
Soldier. Supporter of Ferdinand VII, he fought against the constitutionalists in Madrid in 1822. Head of the Royal Guard, he supported Isabella II as the heir to the throne, taking part in the I Carlist War. In 1834, he was a moderate member of the lower house representing Navarre. From 1838 to 1840, captain general and speaker of Real Audiencia court of Cuba. In 1852, he was minister of War and, months later, of the Navy. 4th Deputy Speaker of the Senate in 1850-1851 and 3rd in 1851-1852.
Speaker of the Senate during the 1853 Legislature.
- Francisco Javier ISTÚRIZ Y MONTERO (Cádiz, 1785 – Madrid, 1871).
Merchant. Liberal 1820. Speaker of the Parliament in 1823, he voted to depose the King, and so was exiled to England. He returned in 1834 and joined the Moderate Party. Speaker of the Estamento de Procuradores lower house in 1836, he took on Mendizábal, and replaced him in Government. Following the events of La Granja, he once again went into exile. He returned and swore an oath to the Constitution of 1837. Speaker of Congress in 1838, 1839 and 1840. With the moderates, he was minister of the Interior, president of the Council of Ministers on two occasions and minister of State.
Speaker of the Senate during the 1858 Legislature
- Manuel GUTIÉRREZ DE LA CONCHA E IRIGOYEN. Marqués del Duero (Córdoba de Tucumán, Argentina, 1808 – Batalla de Montemuro, Navarra, 1874).
Liberal soldier, he supported Isabella II and took part in the Carlist wars. He joined the conservative ranks, going up against Espartero and, having been defeated in 1841, he went into exile. In 1845, he returned with the moderates and received major promotions. Following the Revolution of 1868 he retired from politics.
Speaker of the Senate during the Legislatures of 1858-1860, 1860-1861, 1861-1862, 1862-1863, 1863-1864 and 1864-1865
- Francisco SERRANO DOMÍNGUEZ. Duque de la Torre (Isla de León, Cádiz, 1810 – Madrid, 1885).
Soldier. In 1840, he supported Espartero but in 1843 he conspired against the Regency. Member of the Puritan Conservative Party as of 1845. He withdrew from politics in 1847, reappearing in 1849 with O’Donnell. In 1867, as head of the Liberal Union, he was exiled to the Canary Islands for conspiring against the Queen. In 1868, he was the provisional president of the Government and regent. Also President of the Government under King Amadeus I. In 1873, he conspired against the Republic and escaped to Biarritz. Speaker of the Executive with the Pavía Group. With the arrival of the Restoration, he lost political influence.
Speaker of the Senate during the Legislatures of 1865-1866 and 1883-1884
- Manuel de SEIJAS LOZANO (Almuñécar, Granada, 1800 – Madrid, 1868).
Magistrate and sugar industry magnate. Conservative. Member of parliament as of 1837, minister of the Interior in 1847 and under Narváez, interim speaker of the Congress of Deputies, minister of Trade, Industry and Public Works, and of Justice, and Foreign Affairs. In 1857, he was a prosecutor with the Supreme Court.
Speaker of the Senate during the 1867 Legislature.
- Francisco SANTA CRUZ PACHECO (Orihuela, Alicante, 1797 – Madrid, 1883).
Estate Owner. In the National Militia until 1823. With absolutism, he withdrew from politics. In 1840, he was the political leader of the Regional Government in Teruel. Speaker of the Congress of Deputies in 1853. Minister of the Interior and the Economy under Espartero. He joined the Liberal Union. Speaker of the Court of Auditors and governor of the Bank of Spain. As speaker of the Council of State, he voted in favour of King Amadeus I in 1869. A supporter of Alfonso, he joined the Conservative Party.
Speaker of the Senate during the Legislatures of 1871 and 1872
- Laureano FIGUEROLA BALLESTER (Calaf, Vic, Barcelona, 1816 – Madrid, 1903).
Lawyer and professor. A supporter of Free Trade, he joined the Progressive Party. In 1868 he was a member of the Central Revolutionary Board and minister of the Economy under Serrano and Prim. He created the peseta as the unit of currency. As a supporter of the Republic, when the Restoration triumphed he withdrew from politics.
Speaker of the Senate during the 1872-1873 Legislature.
- Manuel GARCÍA BARZANALLANA GARCÍA DE FRÍAS. Marqués de Barzanallana (Madrid, 1817 – Madrid, 1892).
Civil servant and publicist. Director General of Customs in 1854. In the Moderate Party, he was minister of the Economy several times under Narváez and leader of the moderate opposition in the Constituent Parliament of 1869. With the Restoration he joined the Conservative Party and contributed to the drafting of the 1876 Constitution for the section referring to the Senate.
Speaker of the Senate in the Legislatures of 1876, 1877, 1878 (Extraordinary), 1878, 1879-1880 and 1880-1881
- José GUTIÉRREZ DE LA CONCHA E IRIGOYEN. Marqués de la Habana (Córdoba de Tucumán, Argentina, 1809 – Madrid, 1895).
Lieutenant General. Captain General of Valencia in 1847 and subsequently captain general and governor of Cuba, positions he held on two further occasions. Exiled in 1854 for supporting the July Revolution. In 1863, he was minister of War and president of the Government at the outbreak of the Glorious Revolution. With the Restoration, he became president of the Council of Ministers and captain general of the Armed Forces. Conservative.
Speaker of the Senate during the Legislatures of 1881-1882, 1882-1883, 1886, 1887, 1887-1888, 1888-1889, 1889-1890 and 1893
- Francisco Javier ARIAS DÁVILA MATHEU Y CARONDELET. Conde de Puñonrostro (Cádiz, 1812 – Madrid, 1890).
Lieutenant General. In 1868, he was the director general of Military Staff. Following the Revolution he retired, and was exiled in 1871 for not recognising King Amadeus I. He supported the Restoration and returned to occupy high level positions. In 1879, as the Speaker of the Moderate Party directive, he organised the "The band of generals” with Martínez Campis against Cánovas, but was rejected by his peers. He retired in 1884.
Speaker of the Senate during the 1884-1885 Legislature
- Arsenio MARTÍNEZ CAMPOS Y ANTÓN (Segovia, 1831 – Zarauz, 1900).
Soldier. Monarchist, he proclaimed his support for the King in Sagunto in 1874. Member of parliament under Cánovas, and in 1879 he was minister of War. He joined Sagasta's Liberal Party, becoming minister and president of the Government during Sagasta's absences. Mediator in the Treaty of El Pardo in 1885. Captain General in various places and General of the Army in Melilla, where he signed the Treaty to end war. Speaker of the Supreme Court of War and the Navy.
Speaker of the Senate during the Legislatures of 1885-1886, 1891 and 1899-1900
- Eugenio MONTERO RÍOS (Santiago de Compostela, A Coruña, 1832 – Madrid, 1914).
Lawyer and professor. Speaker of the Progressive Party Committee. Following the Revolution of 1868, he was a member of parliament and member of the Committee that drew up the Constitution. Minister of Justice six times between 1870 and 1873. He supported King Amadeus I and then retired. As of 1885, he was a member of the Fusionist Party with Sagasta, and held the positions of minister of Development, and of Justice, among others. In 1905, he was president of the Government.
Speaker of the Senate during the Legislatures of 1894-1895, 1898, 1901, 1902, 1905-1907, 1910 and 1911
- José ELDUAYEN GORRITI. Marqués del Pazo de la Merced (Chinchón, Madrid, 1823 – Madrid, 1898).
Civil Servant with the Civil Engineering Service. In 1856, he joined the Liberal Union and became a member of parliament representing Vigo. In 1864 he was Undersecretary of the Interior and Councillor of State in 1866. He joined the Revolution of 1868, but soon moved over to the Conservative Party, and was appointed minister of the Economy in 1872. After that, he was minister of Foreign Affairs, of State and of the Interior, and held many other senior posts.
Speaker of the Senate during the 1896 Legislature.
- Manuel AGUIRRE DE TEJADA Y O’NEALE. Conde de Tejada de Valdosera (El Ferrol, A Coruña, 1827 – Madrid, 1911).
Bachelor of jurisprudence and civil servant. Director general of Administration and Development. In 1858 he became a member of parliament in the ranks of the Liberal Union continuing up until the Revolution of 1868, when he withdrew from politics. He returned with the Restoration within the ranks of the Conservative Party. As minister of Foreign Affairs in 1884, he gave Cuba a Penal Code and carried out various penal and tax reforms.
Speaker of the Senate during the 1900-1901 Legislature
- Marcelo de AZCÁRRAGA Y PALMERO (Manila, 1832 – Madrid, 1915).
Soldier. In 1857, he was Commander of the Military Staff in Cuba. In 1868, he became chief of staff. He supported the Restoration and was elected a member of parliament. Lieutenant general in 1877 and captain general in 1911. Conservative, he was twice minister of War and twice president of the Government.
Speaker of the Senate during the Legislatures of 1900, 1903-1904, 1904-1905, 1907-1908, 1908-1909, 1909-1910 and 1914
- Luis PIDAL Y MON. Marqués de Pidal (Madrid, 1842 – Madrid, 1913).
Diplomat. A supporter of Isabella, he fought in the Revolution of 1868 and was forced into exile. He returned with the Restoration, elected member of parliament for Oviedo for 12 years, sharing political hegemony over Asturias with his brother Alejandro. Ambassador in Rome, Councillor for Public Instruction in 1894 and minister of Development from 1899 to 1900. He founded the Ultramontane Catholic Union.
Speaker of the Senate during the 1904-1905 Legislature
- José LÓPEZ DOMÍNGUEZ (Marbella, Málaga, 1829 – Madrid, 1911).
Soldier. Nephew of General Serrano, he joined the Liberal Union. He took part in the Revolution of 1868 and was an aide-de-camp to Amadeus I. He fought against the Carlists and the Cantonals in Cartagena. He did not recognise the Restoration and was separated from the Army. Once restored, he joined the Fusionist Party and was appointed minister of War. As leader of the Liberal Party, he was the minister of War on three occasions. In 1906, he was president of the Government.
Speaker of the Senate during the 1905-1907 Legislature
- Joaquín SÁNCHEZ DE TOCA Y CALVO. Marqués de Toca (Madrid, 1852 – Pozuelo, Madrid, 1942).
A Bachelor of Law, he entered politics through the Conservative Party. Member of parliament, councillor of State, and minister of Agriculture, Trade and Industry and Public Works. In 1902, he was the minister of the Navy, and then of Justice under Maura. Mayor of Madrid and in 1919 president of the Council of Ministers.
Speaker of the Senate during the Legislatures of 1915, 1919-1920, 1921-1922 and 1922
- Manuel GARCÍA PRIETO. Marqués de Alhucemas (Astorga, León, 1859 – San Sebastian, Guipúzcoa, 1938).
He joined the military legal service and then left and became a practising lawyer. As a member of the Liberal Party he was a member of parliament, minister of the Interior, of Justice and of Development, and in 1910 of State. In 1917, again with the Liberals, he was the head of Government and then again following Maura's National Government. In 1922, as the head of the Liberal Concentration, he once again became president until the Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera. In 1931 he was minister of Justice under Aznar.
Speaker of the Senate during the Legislatures of 1916 and 1917
- Alejandro GROIZARD Y GÓMEZ DE LA SERNA (Madrid, 1830 – Madrid, 1919).
Magistrate. In the moderate section of the Progressive Party, moving over to the Constitutional Party when it was created. Member of parliament, minister of Development, and of Justice. Speaker of the Council of State, and minister of Development on two occasions. Once again, from 1897 to 1899, minister of State, and of Justice, handing over Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines in compliance with the Treaty of Paris.
Speaker of the Senate during the 1918 Legislature
- Manuel ALLENDESALAZAR Y MUÑOZ DE SALAZAR (Guernica, Vizcaya, 1856 – Madrid, 1923).
Agricultural Engineer. Member of parliament in 1894 and mayor of Madrid in 1900. Minister of the Economy, of Public Instruction and Fine Arts, and of Agriculture and Public Works. Governor of the Bank of Spain, and in 1907 minister of State. In 1919 he was the president of the coalition government, and once again following the death of Datus, resigning after the defeat of Annual.
Speaker of the Senate during the 1919-1920 Legislature
- Álvaro de FIGUEROA Y TORRES. Conde de Romanones. (Madrid, 1863 – Madrid, 1950).
Lawyer, property owner and businessman. In 1894, in the Liberal Party, he was the mayor of Madrid, and after that he occupied almost all the ministerial positions in his party's governments. Speaker of the Congress of Deputies in 1910 and 1911. President of the Government in 1912, 1915 and 1918. Having stayed away from politics during the Dictatorship, he returned as a monarchist member of parliament in the Parliament of the II Republic.
Speaker of the Senate during the 1923 Legislature